Left over stuff on existing website that I don't know what to do with & if I will need it later:
DR. IGNE (Dr. I) has been a practicing optometrist for several years. She graduated from UC San Diego with a Bachelor’s in Biology and went on to complete her Doctorate at the Southern California College of Optometry at Marshall B. Ketchum University, graduating as a member of the Beta Sigma Kappa Optometric Honor Society. She has been in the Optometric Field for about a decade; starting off as an Eyecare Technician, a Lead Eyecare Advisor, an Optician, and now an Optometrist. Her special interests include Family Optometry with an emphasis on Pediatrics and Vision Therapy. She has become well known for her exceptional care and service.
We are happy to provide you with the following resources, answers to your vision related questions, and helpful links for your own vision research.
Vision and Learning
All About Vision and Learning
Browse through this large collection of articles by the PTA, School Nurse News, Web MD, professors, eye doctors, and more…
About Success in School with Vision Therapy
Read stories written by students, parents and teachers about improved grades, reading, spelling, math, handwriting, and more.
All About Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD or AD/HD), Vision and Eyesight
Is it really ADD/ADHD? Or is it an undetected vision problem?
Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Problems
This article by an eye doctor explains how and why convergence insufficiency causes problems with reading and learning. See the illustrations!
Dyslexia and Vision
The American Academy of Optometrists and the American Optometric Organization discuss vision, learning-related vision problems, and dyslexia.
Eye Tracking, Eye Teaming Problems and Reading Difficulties
Article by an eye doctor explains how and why eye tracking and eye teaming problems interfere with reading speed and skills. See the illustrations!
Binocular Vision Impairments
All About Strabismus, Lazy Eye, Crossed-Eyes, Double Vision, etc.
Most comprehensive patient education web site on Strabismus on the internet – includes an article by an expert eye doctor covering the most frequently asked questions about crossed eyes, eye turns, etc.
What is Lazy Eye or Amblyopia?
Lazy eye is not the same as strabismus (a crossed eye or an eye turn). Read this very easy-to-understand explanation.
Children’s Vision, Eyesight, Eye Exams and Visual Health
A large web site with many pages of easy-to-understand information on lazy eye, crossed-eyes, strabismus, developmental delays, eye muscle surgery, dyslexia, binocular vision impairments, and much more.
Eye Muscle Surgery for Lazy Eye and Strabismus
Answers to the most frequently asked questions regarding eye muscle surgery as a treatment for lazy eye, crossed eyes, etc. This type of surgery is frequently done, but often does not give satisfactory results.
3D Stereo Vision
3D Vision (Binocular Vision)
How does it work? Why do we need it?
Eye Doctors and 3D Vision
Eye doctors use stereoscopic 3D images to develop and reinforce 3D vision.
The Stereo Vision Project
What is stereo vision? What is a binocular (two-eyed) vision impairment?
Learn to see in 3D! Visit the 3D Art Gallery and view Magic Eye stereograms, stereo photographs, optical illusions, and much more.
What is a Complete Eye Exam?
It is not enough to test the clarity of eyesight at a distance of 20 feet (known as 20/20). A complete visual evaluation tests many aspects of vision.
What is Vision Therapy?
Various definitions of Vision Therapy by American Optometric Association, eye doctors, and patient advocates.
National Directory of Eye Doctors
Find an eye doctor in another state. This directory provides free referrals to eye doctors who offer specialized services, such as vision therapy, neuro-optometric rehabilitation, therapeutic lenses, preventive care, etc.
Vision Therapy FAQs
An eye doctor answers questions about Vision Therapy in an interview.
A general catalog of vision therapy success stories
Optometrists and Ophthalmologists
What are the differences in practice focus between a pediatric optometrist and a pediatric ophthalmologist?
Choosing an Eye Doctor
Comments by educators on choosing pediatric vision care for a child.
Build your visual health vocabulary!
PAVE — Parents Active for Vision Education
COVD — The College of Optometrists in Vision Development
An international professional optometric organization which grants board certification in Vision Therapy to optometrists (FCOVD)
AOA — The American Optometric Association
The American Optometric Association represents approximately 36,000 doctors of optometry, optometry students and paraoptometric assistants and technicians. Doctors of optometry provide two-thirds of all primary eye care in the United States.
OEPF — Optometric Extension Program Foundation
Serving the educational needs of optometrists.
NORA — Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association International, Inc.
An organization which provides direction for the visual rehabilitation of the neurologically and cognitively injured and disabled survivor population, including people who have physical disabilities and traumatic brain injuries (TBI).
An international network of optometrists, primarily in the United States
Visual Efficiency Evaluation and Visual Processing Evaluation
The first step in the process of determining whether Vision Therapy is a treatment option is a thorough evaluation done by our doctors. During these assessments a series of tests are done to evaluate the eyes efficiency to take in information and the brain’s ability to process that information. These visual abilities are essential in learning and development.
Some visual conditions cannot be treatment with only glasses or contact lenses, and are best resolved through a program of Vision Therapy. Vision Therapy is an individualized, supervised, treatment program designed to correct visual-motor and/or perceptual-cognitive deficiencies. Vision Therapy sessions include procedures designed to enhance the brain’s ability to control some or all of the following:
Eye tracking and eye teaming
Eye focusing abilities
Visual-motor skills and endurance are developed through the use of specialized computer and optical devices, including therapeutic lenses, prisms, and filters. During the final stages of therapy, the patient’s newly acquired visual skills are reinforced and made automatic through repetition and by integration with motor and cognitive skills.
VISION AND LEARNING
For most school children, as much as 80% of their learning occurs through their eyes. Reading a blackboard, looking at books, using a computer, watching the teacher and observing the other students are some of the ways vision is used in the classroom. Understanding the information that comes through their eyes is paramount to a student’s success at school.
The difference between eyesight and vision is key to understanding some vision-related learning problems.
Eyesight is simply one’s ability to see clearly and is determined through an eye exam.
Vision is best described as the brain’s understanding of what is seen.
Vision involves being able to take visual information, process it and obtain meaning from it. When a child has a vision issue, it affects the way the brain interprets the information being gathered by the eyes. Although the eyes may be able to focus, the information they are transferring to the brain may get reversed, doubled, or jumbled in some other way. This can result in confusion and frustration for students, teachers and parents.
When a child gets confused or frustrated they can act out in the classroom, become angry or depressed, withdraw, experience low self esteem, think they are “stupid” or even give up all together. Many children with vision issues are labeled as hyperactive, trouble makers, daydreamers, class clowns, learning disabled or just plain lazy.
A child with a vision-related learning problem may have perfect 20/20 eyesight and still exhibit some of the following symptoms:
Excessive blinking or squinting
Frequent closing of one eye
Turns head while reading to favor one eye
Becomes exhausted when trying to read
Posture issues, raising one shoulder, tilting head
Difficulty catching or throwing
Repeatedly confuses right and left
Problems moving through space, runs into things, drops things
Rubs eyes frequently
Skips or repeats words while reading
Uses finger to read
Eyes cross or wander
Frequent motion sickness
Moves and tilts whole head instead of just moving eyes
One eye turns, drifts or aims in a different direction than the other eye
Does not recognize a word that was recognized a few lines before
Poor eye-hand coordination
Homework takes “longer than it should”
Short attention span when reading and writing
Theses symptoms are indicative of a learning related vision problem. Your child’s vision may be compromised and it causes him or her to act out and present with what looks like a learning disorder. A comprehensive eye exam can diagnose a problem that you might never know your child has and vision therapy is here to help.
BINOCULAR VISION DISORDER
Binocular vision disorders are conditions where the eyes are unable to align properly. This causes overcorrection or overcompensation for the misalignment, creating strain on the muscles in the eye because he or she is constantly trying to re-align the eyes to eliminate blurriness and double-vision.
Symptoms may include:
Dizziness, headaches and nausea
Unsteadiness while walking
Anxiety as a result of difficulty driving or reading
Anxiety as a result of too much stimuli in a large space or large group of people
Trouble concentrating while reading
Trouble with reading comprehension
Fatigue while reading
Poor eye contact
Avoidance of work
Often symptoms of ADD and ADHD appear similar to those of Binocular Vision Dysfunction.
Convergence insufficiency is a common binocular disorder in which a person’s eyes don’t work cohesively at close distances. It is an eye-teaming problem where eyes drift apart or cross during reading and other close activities.
The tough thing about convergence insufficiency is that it often goes undiagnosed because a person can pass a typical 20/20 eye chart test and still have it. We recommend getting your child an eye exam before they are 6 years old. A simple school exam isn’t in-depth enough to diagnose convergence insufficiency; a comprehensive eye exam is necessary.
Many people that have convergence insufficiency won’t complain of symptoms because the brain will ignore the input of one eye to avoid the double vision. This vision suppression causes the loss of binocular vision and depth of perception. This has a negative impact on coordination, sports, distance judgement, eye contact and motion sickness.
Amblyopia is an eye disorder that occurs when the brain and the eyes do not work together properly and the brain favors one eye over the other. It can result from any condition that prevents one eye from focusing less than the other or when there is vision loss in one eye, even with the best correction. When one eye fails to achieve normal vision the brain begins to ignore the input from that eye and the result can be amblyopia or “lazy eye”.
Problems often begin in infancy and early childhood. If it is diagnosed early enough, treatment can begin and reduced vision can be avoided. If left untreated, amblyopia can cause severe visual disability and in some cases legal blindness.
There are three different kinds of amblyopia:
Strabismic Amblyopia is when one eye is misaligned, it doesn’t focus straight and looks either up, down or out. The brain then will ignore the input from this eye and vision will begin to deplete. Of course, with all eye disorders, an exam is needed for accurate diagnosis, however there is a simple test you might try at home. A sign that strabismic amblyopia may be present is that your child cries or whines when one or the other eye is covered during visual activities. This can be a sign of discomfort and confusion that is caused by the brain favoring one eye and ignoring the other.
Refractive Amblyopia is when there are unequal refractive errors in the eyes. This is when there is a significant difference in unmatched near or farsightedness. Again, the brain will rely more heavily on the eye that is less uncorrected and ignore the input from the worse eye.
Deprivation Amblyopia is when there is something blocking the light from entering the eye, most likely a cataract. The brain gets almost no input or very blurry input from the cataract eye and, once again, will begin to ignore the information supplied.
Strabismus – Exotropia/Esotropia and Double Vision
Strabismus is a binocular vision disorder in which the eyes don’t work together correctly. A person with strabismus will have eyes that don’t align and you will see the person’s eye turn in, out, up or down independently from the other one. You may see this happening all the time or intermittently.
Strabismus can cause amblyopia. When the eyes don’t work together, and one points in a different direction, the brain receives 2 different visual images. The brain may ignore the image from the misaligned eye to avoid double vision, this results in underdeveloped vision which in turn can cause serious reading and learning problems later in life.
There are two different kinds of strabismus:
Esotropia – in which one or both eyes turns inward. The condition can be constantly present, or occur intermittently, and can give the affected individual a “cross-eyed” appearance.
Exotropia – in which one or both of the eyes turn outward. It is the opposite of crossed eyes.
Another symptom of strabismus is double vision. When the eyes don’t orient the same direction and receive two sets of information you might see double or “ghost” images. When your eyes point in two directions either your brain receives two sets of input or it shuts one eye off and only takes in input from one eye. Double vision occurs when your brain continues to get input from both eyes.
Strabismus can be present in very young children and babies as a result of their new and developing visual systems. It is influenced by genetics, so if you have a family history of strabismus, your child is more likely to develop it. It can be detected in any well-baby check up but all children should also have a formal vision screening in the preschool years.
Strabismus, when detected early, can be treated and no long term effects are necessary.
ADHD AND AUTISM
Vision and Autism
Vision skills affect the acquisition of information from the world especially in the presence of autism. Children with autism cannot gain adequate information as they have difficulty fixating a target long enough to interpret the information. In addition, they are completely overwhelmed by the visual world which is, to the child, full of too much movement, brightness, and detail and thus interferes with his or her capacity to use vision effectively. Because this overwhelming feeling may be experienced during the exam, our doctors will modify exam techniques to ensure a thorough exam, but also that the child is comfortable as well.
Vision and ADHD
ADD or ADHD refers to a disorder that impedes a person’s ability to perform to his or her full potential. The symptoms show up in childhood and often carry on into adolescence and adulthood. Some symptoms seen in diagnosed children include:
Careless mistakes made in schoolwork
Difficulty sustaining attention to tasks
Not listening to what is being said
Losing and misplacing belongings
Fidgeting and squirming in seat
Interrupting or intruding on others
Difficulty playing quietly
Undetected and untreated vision problems can cause some of the same symptoms commonly attributed to ADD or ADHD.
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Vision difficulties resulting from head injuries can cause a plethora of symptoms including loss or difficulties with concentration, eye fatigue and/or strain, loss of place when reading, headaches, and perhaps slower processing speeds (please see further symptoms below). Our doctors and vision therapy staff work with you to get you back on track after any type of head trauma.
Intermittent or constant blur
Loss of place during reading
Words blur or move about the page when reading
Difficulties shifting focus from far to near and vice versa
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